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When first published in 1959, this book revolutionized contemporary thinking about science and knowledge.
It remains the one of the most widely read books about science to come out of the twentieth century.(Note: the book was first published in 1934, in German, with the title Logik der Forschung.
Falsifiability is a frequently used criterion in determining whether a particular hypothesis is scientific or conjecture.
The falsifiability of a theory is established if it is possible to test these predictions. Haldane proposed that evolution could be falsified if "various mechanisms, such as the wheel and magnet, which would be useless till fairly perfect" were found in nature.
The first step in determining whether or not "evolution" is falsifiable is defining what, exactly, we mean by "evolution." Evolutionary biologists counter that while direct observation of past events is currently impossible, the theory of common descent could be falsified by tests or observations of the predictions inferred from this theory. This is substantially the same as the argument for intelligent design below.