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), is a country in the Baltic region of northern-eastern Europe.One of the three Baltic states, it is situated along the southeastern shore of the Baltic Sea, to the east of Sweden and Denmark.It is bordered by Latvia to the north, Belarus to the east and south, Poland to the south, and Kaliningrad Oblast (a Russian exclave) to the southwest.Lithuania has an estimated population of 2.8 million people as of 2017, and its capital and largest city is Vilnius. The official language, Lithuanian, along with Latvian, is one of only two living languages in the Baltic branch of the Indo-European language family.For centuries, the southeastern shores of the Baltic Sea were inhabited by various Baltic tribes.In the 1230s, the Lithuanian lands were united by Mindaugas, the King of Lithuania, and the first unified Lithuanian state, the Kingdom of Lithuania, was created on 6 July 1253.During the 14th century, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania was the largest country in Europe; present-day Lithuania, Belarus, Ukraine, and parts of Poland and Russia were the territories of the Grand Duchy.
As World War I neared its end, Lithuania's Act of Independence was signed on 16 February 1918, declaring the founding of the modern Republic of Lithuania.In the midst of the Second World War, Lithuania was first occupied by the Soviet Union and then by Nazi Germany.As World War II neared its end and the Germans retreated, the Soviet Union reoccupied Lithuania.On 11 March 1990, a year before the formal dissolution of the Soviet Union, Lithuania became the first Soviet republic to declare itself independent, resulting in the restoration of an independent State of Lithuania.
Lithuania is a member of the European Union, the Council of Europe, a full member of the Eurozone, Schengen Agreement and NATO.
It is also a member of the Nordic Investment Bank, and part of Nordic-Baltic cooperation of Northern European countries.